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  issue > breeder > Dayna Bell


UPDATE: MN Supreme Court denies petition for review

In response to the Court of Appeals opinion (see below), Dayna Bell had 30 days to file a petition with the Minnesota Supreme Court for further review of the decision made by the Court of Appeals. Bell did so; and filed a petition for review on November 18, 2014.

Document: Petition for Review

On December 4, 2014, the Dakota County Attorney filed a response in opposition to this petition for review.

Document: Response in Opposition

The MN Supreme Court could then make a decision to deny or accept this case. On December 30, 2014, the State of Minnesota in Supreme Court filed an order stating that "the petition of Dayna Kristine Bell for further review be, and the same is, denied."

Document: MN Supreme Court decision

This is great news. It means the Minnesota Supreme Court will not be reviewing the case further; the decision by the jury (and Court of Appeals) remains. Once again, Bell was trying to argue that there are "at least two classes of animals: those that are pets and those that are not." Bell was arguing that the breeding dogs in the kennel were not pets and companion animals (and, instead, was suggesting the animals were livestock); hence, felony charges could not be imposed under Minnesota law. Both the jury and the Court of Appeals disagreed. Now the Minnesota Supreme Court has denied any further review of this matter. For further discussion of this case, please read below.


A win for breeding dogs and their puppies

For link to a copy of the Court of Appeal's opinion scroll down page.

On October 20, 2014, the State of Minnesota in Court of Appeals issued an opinion affirming the convictions in the Dayna Bell animal cruelty case (#A14-0137).

This is great news and a win for breeding dogs and their puppies.

The opinion means the Court disagreed with all six arguments submitted by Bell and upheld the guilty decision made by the jury. (For further details of the case, scroll down to Charges and Complaint.)

The opinion by the Court in regards to the Bell case helps to legally explain what many within society know to be true and have argued for years — that every dog in a breeding kennel, whether a puppy or an adult dog used for breeding, is a pet or companion animal under Minnesota law and must not be neglected, abused or treated poorly. 

The fact that a commercial dog breeder may have tens or hundreds of adult dogs for the purpose of breeding each and making money (i.e., economic gain) does not allow that business owner or operator to "view" these animals differently and, therefore, justify substandard, neglectful or cruel treatment. Under Minnesota law, each dog within the kennel is a pet or companion animal and must be treated as such.

The Court's decision is unpublished, which means it cannot be used as "precedent" to bind another court. However, it can still be used as a persuasive argument in other court cases. The details of the opinion should also be read and understood by all authorities who have jurisdiction over inspections or investigations of kennels and where there is any false interpretation of the law as to how dogs should be viewed and treated.

KUDOS: This type of case shows why strong County Attorneys are needed throughout Minnesota who are willing to take animal cruelty cases seriously, and charge the offender with the appropriate charges and penalties. The original charges were agreed to and led by James C. Backstrom, Dakota County Attorney. The trial was prosecuted by Assistant Dakota County Attorney Jessica Bierwerth. The Court of Appeals briefs were written by Assistant Dakota County Attorney Stacy St. George. At the time Bell was charged, County Attorney Backstrom said:

"It is a very disturbing case.

Dogs and other pets depend on us for safety and well-being,

and when that trust is breached ... it's a very serious matter."

For the Court of Appeals opinion: State of Minnesota vs. Dayna Kristine Bell


ARGUMENT: Livestock vs. Pet or companion animal

Minn. Stat. Sec. 343.20, subd. 6 reads: a pet or companion animal "includes any animal owned, possessed by, cared for, or controlled by a person for the present or future enjoyment of that person or another as a pet or companion, or any stray pet or stray companion animal." Bell was charged and convicted under Minn. Stat. Sec. 343.21.7; the above subdivision is a definition for that statute.

One argument made by Bell, of particular interest to Animal Folks and all of us who are concerned with how breeding dogs are viewed and treated within breeding kennels, was the claim that "the state failed to prove the essential element that the dogs were pet or companion animals." In other words, Bell was trying to argue that breeding dogs in her kennel were, essentially, livestock and not pet or companion animals. Under Minnesota law, felony penalties only apply to pet and companion animals.

The Court of Appeals disagreed. As stated in the Court's opinion (excepts below):

"Bell argues that the state failed to prove the essential element that the dogs were pet or companion ainimals, as defined in Minn. Stat. Sec. 343.20, subd. 6. We disagree. ...

.....Bell argues that the plain language of the statute modifies the term "enjoyment" such that the animal owned, possessed, cared for, or controlled, must be "for the present or future enjoyment of that person or another as a pet or companion," and any domesticated animal possessed for enjoyment in the purely economic sense is not a "pet or companion animal" under the statute. Minn. Stat. Sec. 343.20, subd. 6 (emphasis added). In other words, Bell contends that, while some of her dogs may have been pet or companion animals, she had other dogs, such as breeding stock, which were never intended to be enjoyed as present or future pets either by her or another person....

....Under Bell's interpretation, so long as her subjective "enjoyment" of a dog at her kennel amounts to use of the animal as a vessel for conceiving, birthing, and rearing puppies that would be sold as pets, the breeding dog would not qualify as a "pet or companion animal" under Minn. Stat. Sec. 343.20. We presume that the legislature does not intend results that are a "absurd, impossible of execution, or unreasonable." Minn. Stat. 645.17(1)(2012). Just as a farm cat that is kept in a barn to kill mice or a hunting dog that is used to retrieve game can still be a pet, some of Bell's dogs may have served incidental roles that imparted some economic benefit. But these animals continue to qualify as pet or companion animals under Minn. Stat. 343.20, subd. 6. In every objective sense, the dogs and puppies that Bell "enjoyed" at her kennel were small-breed, household dogs raised to be and treated as domesticated pets, and Bell sold many of them as pets. Each of these dogs, colloquially referred to as "man's best friend," qualifies as a pet or companion animal under the non-exhaustive definition of Minn. Stat. 343.20, subd.6, which is sufficiently definite such that "ordinary people can understand what conduct is prohibited." State v. Newstrom, 371 N. W.2d 525, 528 (Minn. 1985) (quotation omitted)."

For the Court of Appeals opinion: State of Minnesota vs. Dayna Kristina Bell






Dayna Bell was a dog breeder/broker located in the city of Northfield in Dakota County, Minnesota. Bell bred dogs and sold puppies for years through her kennel named Bell Kennels and websites.

In 2010, Bell applied for and received a Class B USDA (federal) broker license, which allowed her to also buy and sell dogs wholesale. USDA license number: 41-B-0265. This license was revoked with status date December 13, 2013.

Due to her felony convictions and the sentencing imposed, Bell Kennels is no longer operating. Bell sold or got rid of the remaining dogs and puppies on her property prior to the end of the jury trial.



Based on the Bell website, consumers and USDA inspection reports, Dayna Bell owned and bred a variety of dog breeds. Some of the breeds included:

• Morkie

• Miniature Schnauzer

• Shih Tzu

• Yorkiepoo

• Goldendoodles

• Labradoodles

• Yorkie/Westie Highland Terrier



During the trial, employees stated Bell's kennel housed over 200 dogs and puppies. Past USDA inspection reports listed Bell's dog and inventory as:

132 total (78 adult dogs and 54 puppies) as reported on November 14, 2012

143 total (80 adult dogs and 63 puppies) as reported on October 1, 2012

143 total (80 adult dogs and 63 puppies) as reported on May 30, 2012

145 total (98 adult dogs and 47 puppies) as reported on February 15, 2012

182 total (102 adult dogs and 80 puppies) as reported on November 28, 2011

163 total (87 adult dogs and 76 puppies) as reported on October 17, 2011

209 total (120 adult dogs an 89 puppies) as reported on March 24, 2011

175 total (97 adult dogs and 78 puppies) as reported on November 23, 2010

175 total (97 adult dogs and 78 puppies) as reported on November 18, 2010

Prior to 2010: unknown as Bell was not licensed by the USDA and the State of Minnesota had no licensing so no data was collected.

NOTE: No animals were seized at the time of the investigation. One of the conditions imposed on Bell at sentencing: "No ownership, care for, possession of or contact with a pet or companion animals....The defendant has 30 days to find homes for her two pet dogs. After 30 days, the Dakota County Sheriff's Department shall collect any animals still remaining on the defendant's property. In 30 days, the Humane Society is to verify that there are no animals in the defendant's care." Following the jury decision, Bell stated that all animals had been removed from her property — so no animals were remaining on the property to be seized. It is not known where the dogs and puppies were placed.



The veterinarian listed on Bell's Health Record and Conditional Use Permit was Dr. Sharon Dreifus.



Below are examples of USDA inspection reports for Bell Kennels.

November 14, 2012 —   2 total violations

November 13, 2012 —    1 total violation (no one present for inspection)

October 1, 2012 —   5 total violations

May 30, 2012 — 1 total violation

NOTE: In April 2012, Bell was charged with multiple counts of animal cruelty. Notice how the number of violations on USDA inspection reports increased after complaints were filed by employees with the Sheriff in September.

February 15, 2012 — 9 total violations

November 28, 2011 — 0 total violations

October 17, 2011 — 1 total violation

NOTE: Complaints of animal cruelty were filed by former employees with the Sheriff on September 27, 2011; USDA violations were not reported to law enforcement by the USDA. The October USDA inspection reported "On September 27, 2011 ten dogs were improperly euthanized by drowning due to eight of the said animals attacking a horse, and two of the said animals attacking each other. Euthanasia in any way except as agreed upon on your program of veterinary care plan can cause undue pain and suffering to the animal involved."

March 24, 2011 — 0 total violations

November 23, 2010 — 0 total violations

November 18, 2010 — 3 total violations



On June 25, 2012, Animal Folks submitted a formal complaint and multiple affidavits from consumers who had purchased sickly puppies from Bell Kennels to the Minnesota Office of Attorney General. No action was taken by the Attorney General.

Consumers believed they had been misled. Examples included:

• "Zeus...had health problems the entire time I've owned him, including ear infections, skin issues, very thin fur, and digestive problems..and has vesculitis."

• Dayna Bell handed us two puppies and said both were males...a few days later we took Ash to a vet and learned that "he" was a female."

• Dayna said they leashed them and took them for walks. When Jessica's [the consumer] children went to pick out a collar, "Dayna said that Griffin would not like it, because he'd never worn one before." Griffin had an ear infection ...and has a Grade 1-2 patellar luxation."

• "His fur was matted and had feces in it. He was very fearful. ..About a month after purchasing him, B.B. became very sick, diarrhea and vomiting...his urine had worms in it....he had severe giardia."

Observations were also made by these consumers as to kennel conditions:

• "overwhelming odor of urine and feces"

• dogs were "filthy, matted and kept in small cages"

• "the dogs were filthy and all the puggles had diarrhea"



The Register of Actions lists all the actions taken during the criminal case.

Dayna Bell Case Number: 19HA-CR-12-1294



  • September 27, 2011 — Dakota County Sheriff's Office receives a report from Bell's former employees of cruelty and maltreatment of animals by Dayna Bell.
  • September 29, 2011 — Search warrant executed on property.
  • April 16, 2012 — Original complaint filed; Bell charged with 16 counts of felony animal  in connection with the deaths of numerous puppies and dogs in her care in September of 2011.
  • April 15, 2013 — Complaint amended; counts 3 and 4 dropped.
  • October 31, 2013 — Second Amended Complaint filed (14 counts total)
  • November 8 , 2013 — Verdict; Jury finds Bell guilty of 13 out of the 14 felony counts of animal cruelty.
  • January 17, 2014 — Sentencing by judge.
  • January 21 , 2014 — Notice of Appeal filed by Bell for Court of Appeals to review case.
  • October 20, 2014 — Opinion by Court of Appeals filed affirming convictions.
  • November 18, 2014 — Bell files Petition for Review with MN Supreme Court
  • December 4, 2014 — Dakota County Attorney files response to petition.
  • December 30, 2014 — MN Supreme Court denies further review.



The criminal complaint lists the charges and also provides a Statement of Probable Cause, which laid the foundation for a Search Warrant and investigation. The charges alleged Bell drowned multiple dogs and puppies and, in one case, broke a dog's neck. One witness says she saw Bell throw a dog tied to a cinderblock into a pool, where it drowned. Drowning causes animals to suffer and is not a humane or acceptable form of euthanasia. The jury agreed, and found Bell guilty of 13 felony counts.

Dayna Bell - Second Amended Complaint

Additional court documents available.

Thank you to citizens who submitted Victim Statements for this case.



• November 8, 2013: Jury Convicts Northfield Breeder of Animal Cruelty

• April 17, 2012: Dog Breeder Charged With Cruelty, Killing Puppies



As explained by the Minnesota Judicial Branch:

The mission of the Minnesota Court of Appeals is to "provide justice through a system that assures equal access for the fair and timely resolution of cases and controversies." This Court reviews "all final decisions of the trial courts, state agencies and local governments. As the error-correcting court, the Court of Appeals handles most of the appeals, which allows the Minnesota Supreme Court to spend time resolving difficult constitutional and public policy cases. Court of Appeals' decisions are the final ruling in about 95 percent of the 2,400 appeals every year. Typically, about 5 percent of the court's decisions are accepted by the Minnesota Supreme Court for further review."

The jury convicted Bell of 13 of the 14 animal cruelty charges. Bell appealed this decision to the Court of Appeals.



Briefs were filed to the Court, laying out the arguments for appeal. Copies are below.

Bell Appeal: Appellant's Brief and Appendix

Bell Appeal: Respondent's Brief







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